PARIS — Leaders from round the world gathered at the Arc de Triomphe on Sunday to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the armistice that ended World War I whilst the worldwide bonds that have been cast in that second of peace have once more come beneath pressure.
President Emmanuel Macron of France, who hosted the ceremony on a dreary, rain-soaked day, used the event to implicitly rebuke the “America First” assault on globalism and worldwide establishments by President Trump, who sat close by stone-faced and unmoved.
“Patriotism is the precise reverse of nationalism,” Mr. Macron stated in a speech to the world leaders and others gathered at the arch. “Nationalism is a betrayal of patriotism by saying, ‘our curiosity first, who cares about the others?’”
Remembering the forces that led to World War I, Mr. Macron warned that “the outdated demons” have been resurfacing and declared that “giving into the fascination for withdrawal, isolationism, violence and domination could be a grave error.”
Mr. Trump, listening to a translation via an earpiece, appeared grim throughout the speech and clapped unenthusiaticly afterward. He had no talking position at the ceremony, however deliberate to communicate later in the day at a cemetery for American troopers killed in the conflict.
Bells tolled precisely one century after the weapons fell silent at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month as dozens of world leaders, led by Mr. Macron, marched down the Champs-Élysées beneath black umbrellas as sword-bearing troopers stood watch.
Mr. Trump arrived in his personal motorcade, touring individually, aides stated, as a result of of safety, and joined the world leaders beneath a clear enclosure at the arch. Then President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia arrived, approached Mr. Trump, shook his hand and gave him a pleasant pat on the arm earlier than taking his place in the line three individuals away. Mr. Macron reviewed uniformed troops and stood solemnly as the French nationwide anthem was carried out.
The war to end all wars, as it was called, did nothing of the sort — the world found itself in conflagration again just two decades later. But World War I marked the beginning of a new era of American leadership beyond its shores and, in some ways, kicked off a century-long effort to tie the nations of the world together in an interdependent way — a global order rejected by Mr. Trump.
Dismissing the conviction that international institutions have benefited all, Mr. Trump has argued that other nations have taken advantage of United States, whether in economics or security, and that it was time to look after American interests first. He has pulled the country from a number of international agreements on trade, nuclear proliferation and climate change, and disparaged alliances like NATO and the European Union.
The tensions were on display with the president’s meeting with Mr. Macron on Saturday, a day after Mr. Trump issued a Twitter blast at his French host, calling a proposal for a European army “very insulting.” Mr. Macron defined that the thought was not to counter the United States however to relieve it of some of the burden for European safety, a continuing theme of Mr. Trump’s.
In an interview with CNN on Sunday, Mr. Macron performed down the variations with Mr. Trump, saying he most well-liked to do his diplomacy in individual relatively than by Twitter. He stated that he and Mr. Trump had some similarities in that each got here to workplace as outsiders who weren’t given a lot likelihood of successful, however he outlined starkly totally different views of worldwide relations.
“We know the place we disagree, and we’re very simple in that — on local weather, on commerce, on multilateralism — however we work very properly collectively as a result of we’ve got very common and direct discussions,” Mr. Macron informed Fareed Zakaria, the CNN host. Mr. Macron termed himself “a patriot” as distinct from a “nationalist.”
“I do defend my nation. I do consider that we’ve got a robust identification,” Mr. Macron stated. “But I’m a robust believer in cooperation between the totally different peoples, and I’m a robust believer of the proven fact that this cooperation is nice for everyone, the place the nationalists are typically far more primarily based on a unilateral strategy and the legislation of the strongest, which isn’t my case.”
Aside from the friction together with his host, Mr. Trump’s two-day go to to Paris was marred by his resolution on Saturday to scrap a deliberate go to to the Aisne-Marne American Cemetery at the foot of the hill the place the Battle of Belleau Wood was fought. Aides cited the rain in canceling the helicopter flight, and Mr. Trump despatched his chief of employees and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in his stead.
But his failure to seem went over badly in Europe, the place it was taken as one other snub by a frontrunner who has favored confrontation over cooperation. Winston Churchill’s grandson referred to as Mr. Trump “pathetic” and never match to signify the United States.
Mr. Trump has one other likelihood to pay respects to the conflict lifeless on Sunday, when he’s scheduled to go to the Suresnes American Cemetery exterior Paris. But he is not going to keep for a Paris peace discussion board that Mr. Macron is sponsoring to convey collectively world leaders to focus on methods to keep away from battle.
By distinction, Mr. Macron and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, representing the two nations that have been as soon as bitter enemies, demonstrated the shut friendship that has emerged from the rubble of wars. In appearances over the weekend, the French and German leaders appeared affectionate, and Mr. Macron later posted an image of the two holding palms together with the single phrase “Unis,” or “United.”
Even a century later, World War I stays a resonant reminiscence throughout a Continent that was ravaged by a battle in contrast to any that preceded it. From its opening days in 1914, the Allies led by Britain, France and Russia fought with the Central Powers led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in a brutal, beastly conflict that launched trench warfare, chemical weapons and aerial bombardment.
The United States resisted being drawn in till 1917, when it joined the Allies and despatched expeditionary forces that lastly tipped the steadiness in opposition to Germany, which surrendered in 1918. In whole, some 8.5 million troopers and 7 million civilians have been killed throughout the conflict. It additionally shook up the map of the world as empires fell, colonies have been redistributed and new nations created; the traces of the Middle East have been redrawn, and Bolsheviks rose to energy in the Russian Revolution.
The peace that got here 100 years in the past turned out to be a victors’ peace via the punishing Versailles Treaty, and the League of Nations created at the moment failed to turn into the guarantor of peace it was supposed to be. Instead, the world plunged again into conflict 20 years later.
But Mr. Macron stated that from the ashes of these two wars got here hope. “This hope is known as the European Union, a union freely entered into, by no means earlier than seen in historical past, a union that has freed us of our civil wars,” he stated. “This hope is known as the group of the United Nations, which is a assure of the spirit of cooperation to defend the widespread good of the world that has its destiny successfully linked and that has drawn from the classes of the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles.”
Among the leaders current on Sunday have been Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada, King Felipe VI of Spain, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel and dozens of others. Five jets flew over the arch streaming the purple, white and blue of the French flag.
The cellist Yo-Yo Ma carried out the Sarabande from Cello Suite No. 5 by Johann Sebastian Bach, and Angélique Kidjo sang “Blewu,” a track of gratitude for the dedication of others, which was composed by a Togolese singer in the Mina language. Eight highschool college students in yellow scarves learn testimonies from troopers a century in the past.
“The traces of that conflict by no means haven’t pale from French soil. They haven’t pale from Europe, from the Middle East nor from our recollections,” Mr. Macron stated. “Let us not neglect, as a result of the remembrances of these sacrifices urges us to be worthy of those that died for us that we could reside free.”